Generator synchronization is the process of matching a generator’s parameters with a functioning power system. Before the generator is reconnected to the electrical grid, this is completed. The system can resume regular operation after generator synchronization.
You must act carefully during the Synchronization of a generator. It’ll avoid harm to the unit and your power system. You must match the generator’s frequency and voltage while synchronizing to a power grid. You can use an automatic synchronizer to automate the synchronization process.
Why Is Generator Synchronization Needed?
If any of the parameters do not precisely coincide with the network, your generator will not supply power to your electrical distribution system. Synchronization is essential when you have multiple generators. The two or more generators generating the power must be connected and run in parallel to manage bigger loads because electrical loads are not constant.
Parallel operation refers to using multiple tiny units instead of a single generator. Parallelization requires Synchronization, and many commercial plants favor this configuration since:
- Parallel operation is significantly more dependable than single-unit generators when there are several generators. The entire setup shuts down if the generator fails in a single-unit system. If one generator fails in a parallel system, the other units will keep the system running.
- Continuity: If one component requires maintenance, the other systems can continue to function, preventing the shutdown of your entire business.
- Your load needs could change during the day. Your system must handle high and lower loads.
- Generators perform most efficiently when they are loaded to their maximum capacity. Your system can operate efficiently by adjusting loads.
- Larger operations call for greater power. Larger operations call for greater power. Systems with more generators have increased capacity.
Requirements for Synchronization of Generators
You must ensure four parameters.
- The phases of your electric grid must be in the same order as the three phases of the alternators in your system.
- Voltage magnitude: voltage magnitude can result in severe interruptions if you don’t make the alternator and bus bar parallel to each other.
- Frequency: When frequencies are out of balance, energy flows become unstable. This instability could result in equipment damage.
- Phase angle: The bus bar and generator alternator’s phase angle ought to be zero.
You can check using the synchronization technique whether these properties are congruent between your bus bar and generator alternators.
Techniques for Synchronization
The concept of generator synchronization is not easy to understand; however, you can use these three methods:
- The Three Dark Lamps Method uses the bus bar to synchronize the second generator but is unable to reveal the frequency of the generator and bus bar.
- The Two Bright, One Dark method detects frequency but is unable to verify the phase order’s accuracy.
- Using the synchrono scope method, the alternator frequency is shown to be higher or lower than the bus bar frequency.
You can use modern synchronization technology to automate Synchronization.
Faulty Generator Synchronization
The following things could happen due to poor generator synchronization.
- Generator damage and wiring fusion
- Transformers can get burned.
- Fluctuations in your electrical distribution system.
- Interruption in the power supply
Due to the dangers of improper Synchronization, it is imperative that all operations take the necessary precautions while the process is underway. If you’re unclear about what to do, talk to a professional; they’ll help you maintain your system up and running.
Generator Synchronization Panel
When you link with a power source, its function is described by the name alone. Implies comparing, matching, and adjusting two or more power magnitude levels. When power continuity is a top priority, synchronizing panels are required. In conclusion, the most crucial component of LT Panels for essential production businesses is synchronizing panels.
When the main supply is stopped on one or all phases (after a delay that can be adjusted), the synchronizing panel will function as an automatic mains failure system, causing the generator sets to start up simultaneously. The generators will synchronize with one another using motorized circuit breakers or contactors into a shared bus bar after an initial warm-up period (adjustable). After that, the load will be linked to the main distribution box, and the motorized change-over switch will be closed.
The load-sharing units regularly check the load, and during times of low demand, one or two generators may be turned down to reduce fuel usage. The second and third generators will be restarted, synced, and reconnected to load as demand increases once more. An adjustable observation period is enabled when the control unit notices that the main supply has been restored before the main supply is reconnected. The generator sets will then be turned off after a cooling-down time.
- 3-phase mains-generator voltage control
- 3-phase current control
- 12 digital inputs
- 3 Analog inputs for pressure, temperature, and fuel level monitoring
- Retentive energy meters
- RS-232 port for setup, remote control, and GSM modem (optional)
- Context-sensitive online help prompts
- Choice of text language
- Icon detail and alarm viewing
- Event log for alarms, status, and events
- Operating data recording
- Battery voltage
- Phase, line, and system mains voltage values
- Phase, line, and system generator voltage values
- Phase current
- Active, reactive, and apparent power values
- Active-reactive energy meters
- Power factor per phase
- Mains and generator frequency
- Engine speed (rpm)
- Oil pressure
- Water temperature
- Fuel level
- Engine running hour counter
- Hours remaining before next maintenance
- Total number of starting attempts
- Percentage of successful starting attempts
Multiple generators are used in parallel on ships, industries, and power plants to share the load, increase production, simplify maintenance, and reduce operating costs. A generator can run in parallel if load sharing and proper Synchronization are employed. All generator panels include an automated synchronization feature; however, a backup human synchronization option is frequently provided in case of emergency.
To smoothly parallel the generators, they must first be tuned to the same frequency; one of its techniques will properly synchronize the voltage and phase angle. To synchronize generators, one can use a synchroscope, a dark lamp, or the one dark, two dazzling light method.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1: Why is generator synchronization needed?
A generator cannot supply power to an electrical system unless every parameter is identical to the network’s requirements. When multiple alternators cooperate to power the load, Synchronization becomes necessary.
Q2: What happens when generators are not synchronized?
When spinning masses are not brought into synchronism (perfectly matched speed and rotor angle) with the power system, mechanical forces brought on by abrupt acceleration or deceleration might harm the generator and prime mover.
Q3: Why do we synchronize the generator?
We synchronize generators to get a continuous supply of power.
Q4: What is the principle of Synchronization?
The fundamental idea behind synchronization algorithms is that each node repeatedly updates its own data using only that of its nearby neighbors.
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